At present, the analysis of numeral works shows that classical methods for determining shapes, sizes and compositions of carbon nanostructures are transmission electron microscopy, methods based on electron diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. However, more and more publications appear referring to the investigation of nanostructures with the use of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method. Further development of the XPS method and related methods for the surface (from 1 to 10nm) investigation will lead to an increase in the number of methods for studying compositions, electronic properties and structures of nanostructures.