From a perspective of applying deterministic, physiological models to clinical scenarios, the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine is currently focused on decision support (DS) tools that provide guidance and “human-in-the-loop” feedback for diagnosis and control of therapeutic delivery. There are two key differentiators when differentiating emerging DS applications: (1) the model and computational methods used and (2) the decision-making framework used with these models. It is on this second aspect that this chapter focuses.