Coal is almost certainly going to be the dominant fuel in coming decades due to its extensive reserves in important energy economies (see Figure 5.1). Indeed, the global reserve/production rate ratio for coal is around three times that of the next most abundant fossil fuel. Far from reduction of global CO2 emissions, there is likely to be a very signicant increase, undermining our climate change efforts, unless more efcient means of carbon conversion are achieved. That is why new clean carbon conversion technologies must be at the forefront of energy technology development.