In the history of human civilization, for many thousands of years before the era of industrialization and the advent of motorization, there was little difference in size and speed between the carriers for people and those for goods. Because of the relatively slow pace of economic activities and low speed of transport movements, traffic congestion, if any,

2.1 Introduction 31 2.2 Urbanization, Freight Transportation, and City Logistics 32

2.2.1 Consequences of Urbanization in Asia 32 2.2.2 Characteristics of Urban Freight Transport and Logistics 35

2.3 Impacts of Transport and Logistics on City Development in Asia 38 2.3.1 Travel Safety 38 2.3.2 Social Impacts 39 2.3.3 Environmental Impacts 40

2.4 Need for Incorporating City Logistics into Transport and Land Use Planning 41

2.5 Emergence of the Megalopolis 44 2.6 Opportunities and Challenges of City Logistics

Developments in Asian Cities 47 2.6.1 Enhancing Transport and Land Use Planning

Incorporating City Logistics Needs 47 2.6.2 Exploiting Alternative Transport and Distribution

Modes for Freight 48 2.6.3 Achieving Environmentally Friendly City Logistics

for Sustainable City Development 49 References 50

was not of major consequence and the conflict between passenger and goods transport was almost nonexistent.