DOI link for Infectious Colitis
Infectious Colitis book
Infectious diarrhea is a lethal but preventable problem as well as a major economic burden. Most deaths occur in the developing world, where diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in malnourished pediatric patients. Infectious colitis is distinguished clinically from generalized gastroenteritis by stooling pattern. Inflammation of infected colonic mucosa results in frequent, small volume bowel movements which may be mucoid and bloody. Fever is generally present in infectious colitis. Significant complications are unusual in healthy individuals but can include systemic spread, or toxic megacolon and bowel necrosis with viscous perforation. Significant postinfectious and extraintestinal manifestations may occur with some pathogens. Campylobacter spp. infections are associated with Guillain–Barre syndrome; Yersinia spp. Most patients who are otherwise healthy will clear their infection without sequelae within 5–7 days. There are recognized postinfectious irritable bowel syndromes described in the literature, however, in which symptoms may persist for months or even years after an acute infectious colitis, despite no evidence of ongoing infection.