DOI link for Colonic Bleeding
Colonic Bleeding book
Colonic bleeding in infants and children is a common occurrence throughout the world. This chapter focuses on the wide spectrum of underlying pathology. Colonic bleeding has a heterogeneous presentation that can be difficult to localize. Diagnostic colonoscopy in children is a safe, sensitive and often essential means to identify causes of colonic bleeding, mucosal changes, and intraluminal anatomical lesions. Chronic constipation is a common predisposing feature of lower intestinal bleeding localizing to the rectum and anus that contributes to the formation of anal fissures, hemorrhoids, solitary rectal ulcers, and rectal prolapse. Hemorrhoids arising in children in the absence of portal hypertension are rare, although the incidence increases during adolescence. Up to 35% of children with portal hypertension will develop colonic or anorectal varices, or external hemorrhoids. Pseudomembranes, mucosal necrosis, and vascular thrombosis are colonic features of acute and severe hemolytic uremic syndrome.