As crime continued to decline throughout the 1990s, new policing management techniques and strategies began to emerge and develop including decentralized management accountability and the use of state-of-the-art information technology systems such as automated complaint recording systems and geographic information systems (GIS). These policing innovations were largely credited as the reasons for the crime decreases. Additionally, a renewed interest in the timeliness of raw community information and criminal intelligence became a significant part of crime reduction strategies. These

8.1 Introduction 183 8.2 Technology and Policing in the NYPD 186

8.2.1 CompStat and GIS 186 8.2.2 Fusion Centers 187 Lower Manhattan Security Initiative 188 Real Time Crime Center 188

8.3 Conclusion 188 References 189

new strategies, techniques, and the utilization of advanced information technology became the focus of attention in both the professional business community and the world of academe. The policing profession as a whole gained pre-eminence in that police management strategies and techniques and uses of technology became the agents of change and reform as opposed to a policing profession that historically required change and reform.