Cocoa production involves cultivation of cocoa trees (Theobroma cacao), harvesting the fruits (pods) from the tree, extraction of beans from the pods, fermentation and drying of the beans, and processing of the dried beans to cocoa products and chocolate. Cocoa is one of the most important earners of foreign exchange in the world market and is among the three main agricultural commodities traded worldwide, behind only to coffee and sugar. For this reason, the production of
8.1 Introduction 309 8.2 Potential Uses of Cocoa Waste Materials 311
8.2.1 Cocoa Pod Husks 312 184.108.40.206 Use of Pods as Animal Feed 313 220.127.116.11 Fertilizers 315 18.104.22.168 Biogas and Biofuels 317
8.2.2 Cocoa Pulp and Sweatings (Cocoa Pulp Juice) 318 22.214.171.124 Cocoa Alcoholic Products 319 126.96.36.199 Cocoa Vinegar 320 188.8.131.52 Cocoa Jam 322 184.108.40.206 Frozen Cocoa Pulp 323
8.2.3 Cocoa Bean Shell (Testa) 323 8.2.4 Other Value-Added Products from Cocoa Wastes 325
220.127.116.11 Chemicals 325 18.104.22.168 Pectins and Phenolics 326 22.214.171.124 Absorptive Matrix 327
8.3 Future Prospects and Conclusions 327 References 329
cocoa is very important in the economies of the main cocoa-producing countries: Ivory Coast, Indonesia, Ghana, and Nigeria (Gotsch 1997; Donald 2004; Asase et al. 2009; FAOSTAT 2014a).