Cocoa production involves cultivation of cocoa trees (Theobroma cacao), harvesting the fruits (pods) from the tree, extraction of beans from the pods, fermentation and drying of the beans, and processing of the dried beans to cocoa products and chocolate. Cocoa is one of the most important earners of foreign exchange in the world market and is among the three main agricultural commodities traded worldwide, behind only to coffee and sugar. For this reason, the production of
8.1 Introduction 309 8.2 Potential Uses of Cocoa Waste Materials 311
8.2.1 Cocoa Pod Husks 312 18.104.22.168 Use of Pods as Animal Feed 313 22.214.171.124 Fertilizers 315 126.96.36.199 Biogas and Biofuels 317
8.2.2 Cocoa Pulp and Sweatings (Cocoa Pulp Juice) 318 188.8.131.52 Cocoa Alcoholic Products 319 184.108.40.206 Cocoa Vinegar 320 220.127.116.11 Cocoa Jam 322 18.104.22.168 Frozen Cocoa Pulp 323
8.2.3 Cocoa Bean Shell (Testa) 323 8.2.4 Other Value-Added Products from Cocoa Wastes 325
22.214.171.124 Chemicals 325 126.96.36.199 Pectins and Phenolics 326 188.8.131.52 Absorptive Matrix 327
8.3 Future Prospects and Conclusions 327 References 329
cocoa is very important in the economies of the main cocoa-producing countries: Ivory Coast, Indonesia, Ghana, and Nigeria (Gotsch 1997; Donald 2004; Asase et al. 2009; FAOSTAT 2014a).