Cocoa production involves cultivation of cocoa trees (Theobroma cacao), harvesting the fruits (pods) from the tree, extraction of beans from the pods, fermentation and drying of the beans, and processing of the dried beans to cocoa products and chocolate. Cocoa is one of the most important earners of foreign exchange in the world market and is among the three main agricultural commodities traded worldwide, behind only to coffee and sugar. For this reason, the production of


8.1 Introduction 309 8.2 Potential Uses of Cocoa Waste Materials 311

8.2.1 Cocoa Pod Husks 312 Use of Pods as Animal Feed 313 Fertilizers 315 Biogas and Biofuels 317

8.2.2 Cocoa Pulp and Sweatings (Cocoa Pulp Juice) 318 Cocoa Alcoholic Products 319 Cocoa Vinegar 320 Cocoa Jam 322 Frozen Cocoa Pulp 323

8.2.3 Cocoa Bean Shell (Testa) 323 8.2.4 Other Value-Added Products from Cocoa Wastes 325 Chemicals 325 Pectins and Phenolics 326 Absorptive Matrix 327

8.3 Future Prospects and Conclusions 327 References 329

cocoa is very important in the economies of the main cocoa-producing countries: Ivory Coast, Indonesia, Ghana, and Nigeria (Gotsch 1997; Donald 2004; Asase et al. 2009; FAOSTAT 2014a).