Cocoa is largely produced in developing countries, yet it is mostly consumed in industrialized countries. West Africa accounts for about 70% of the world production (Figure 3.1), whilst Europe and

3.5.9 Design of Driers 104 Heat Transfer by Conduction 105 Heat Transfer by Natural Convection 105 Heat Transfer by Forced Convection/Hot

Air 108 Mechanical Dryers 108

3.6 Polishing of Dried Cocoa Beans 109 3.7 Storage of Dry Cocoa Beans 110 3.8 Factors Affecting the Quality of Cocoa Beans 111

3.8.1 Genotype or Cocoa Variety 111 3.8.2 Degree or Extent of Fermentation (Slaty and

Purple Beans) 111 3.8.3 Turning (Mixing) and Aeration during Fermentation 113

3.9 Grading of Dry Cocoa Beans 113 3.10 Future Prospects and Conclusions 114

3.10.1 Use of Starter Cultures for More Reliable Cocoa Fermentation 114

3.10.2 Improved Fermentor Design 115 References 116

the United States consume about 40% and 34% of world production, respectively (ICCO 2011). Of the cocoa-producing countries, only Brazil and Mexico are amongst the top 25 cocoa-consuming countries (Figure 3.2). Almost all cocoa produced worldwide is sold at international markets in London, New York, and Paris in the form of dried fermented beans. e firms that turn the cocoa beans and intermediate products into consumable products are also mainly based in Europe and the United States.