Kosovo is a region located in the southernmost area of the former People’s Republic of Serbia that had previously been under the political control of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It encompasses around 4,200 mi.2 (or 11,000 km2) with a population of approximately two million, which presently consists of a majority (+90%) ethnic Albanians who had moved into the region during the 500-year Ottoman occupation. Kosovo was originally designated
History of Kosovo 183 United Nations-Administered Kosovo 184 Ahtisaari Proposal 186 European Union Involvement 186 “Russian Roadblock” 187 European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo 187 European Union Institute for Security Studies Evaluation of EULEX 189 Rand Corporation Analysis of European Union Postconflict Involvement 190 Criminality and Safety within Kosovo 191 Organized Crime Activity within Kosovo 192 Corruption within Kosovo 193 Recommendations for Kosovo to Move Forward 195 Summary and Conclusion 196 References 197
an autonomous province in 1945, but it did not gain actual political autonomy until 1946 (Mertus, 1999). After the fall of Yugoslavia, autonomy came to an end under the direction of Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic in 1989. Milosevic ordered that all government positions could only be filled by ethnic Serbians. The ethnic Albanian population formed a parallel society and declared their independence in 1990. This was not recognized by Serbia, or by other countries, and Milosevic flooded Kosovo with Serbian paramilitary and law enforcement officials. The Albanian population countered by forming the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) and engaging in guerilla conflict with the Serbian authorities. Originally, the KLA was designated a terrorist organization by the international community, but the widespread ethnic cleansing perpetrated under Milosevic’s guidance later resulted in repeated efforts by the international community to end the armed conflict. Milosevic and Serbian officials repeatedly participated in peace negotiations but refused to sign any treaties. As such, in March 1999 the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) engaged in an 11-week bombing campaign that crippled Serbia’s infrastructure and military operations in Kosovo (Hagan, 1999; Solana, 1999).