From a functional perspective, the basic operation of the heart consists of coordinated contractions of its four chambers: the right atrium, the le atrium, the right ventricle, and the le ventricle. A diagram is shown in Figure 3.1. e right atrium receives

3.9 Ambulatory Monitoring 64 3.9.1 Holter Monitoring 64 3.9.2 Long-Term Ambulatory/Event Recorders 65 3.9.3 Implantable Loop Recorders 65

3.10 Telemetry 65 3.11 Cardiac Stress Testing 66 3.12 Cardiac Mapping 67

3.12.1 Electrograms 67 3.12.2 Eective Refractory Periods 69 3.12.3 Electroanatomic Mapping 69 3.12.4 Noncontact Mapping 71

3.13 Radio-Frequency Lesion Measurements 71 3.13.1 Contact Sensing and Force Measurement 71 3.13.2 Tissue Temperature Sensing 72

3.14 Possible Future Instruments 73 Bibliography 73

deoxygenated blood, which then lls the right ventricle. e right ventricle then pumps this blood to the lungs via the pulmonary artery. e le atrium receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins, which then lls the le ventricle. e le ventricle then pumps the oxygenated blood to all parts of the body via the aorta. e pumping of the heart occurs with rhythmic contractions that occur at rates typically between 60 and 80 beats/min. Heart rates vary depending on need (e.g., higher heart rates with physical activity but lower rates at rest).