Abstract: The ability to independently navigate urban environments is a fundamental necessity for all of us. While outdoor navigation is a long-studied and well-established area of research that has yielded many practical solutions, analogous solutions for navigating indoor environments are still relatively sparse. The problem of indoor navigation is further complicated for those who have visual impairments. Visual impairments can range from partial blindness to severe visual impairment. People who are visually impaired must use a variety of techniques to familiarize themselves with new environments, to orient themselves within an unfamiliar environment, and to navigate an environment to move between points of interest. While white canes and guide dogs can assist people who are visually impaired with obstacle avoidance and some aspects of safe passage, many of the challenges faced by these individuals when navigating unfamiliar indoor environments remain unsolved. Perhaps the most critical need is for tools that can alert visually impaired people during dangerous situations and safely guide them during emergency evacuations. As a result of these challenges, people with visual impairments have to rely on sighted people when they need to visit an unfamiliar location and are often limited to visiting a few familiar places.