Quality of fresh fruits and vegetables are governed by many factors. The combined effect of all, decides the rate of deterioration and spoilage. These factors if not controlled properly, lead to postharvest losses on large scale. According to Kader (2002), approximately one third of all fresh fruits and vegetables are lost before it reaches to the consumer. Another estimate suggests that about 30-40 percent of total fruit and vegetables production is lost in between harvest and final consumption (Salami et al., 2010). A considerable research priority has been given to the maturity status of fresh fruits and vegetables at harvest and the maintenance of proper storage temperature at every stage from the farm to fork during the last two decades. However, the influence of several preharvest factors and cultural practices on the postharvest physiology, quality and storage life has been given less importance. Therefore in this chapter, an attempt is made to discuss about how the postharvest quality of fresh horticultural produce gets influenced by both preharvest and postharvest factors.