Archaeology is a multi-disciplinary science, which, based on the systematic analysis of material remains of past human activity in their archaeological context, aims at enriching our knowledge on past cultures and at understanding past and modern societies. Through the years, archaeology has developed various methods to document these remains and to analyze and interpret them within various methodological, conceptual and theoretical frameworks, eventually fi nding itself in a sort of epistemological crisis these past decades. Now archaeological research is facing a dramatic challenge vis-à-vis the growth of new scientifi c paradigms enabled by Information and Communication Technology (ICT).