The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels has attracted renewed attention in recent years due to its environmental, economic, and strategic advantages [361-3]. In contrast to fossil fuels, the biomass-derived fuels can be CO2-neutral, since the CO2 produced in their combustion can be reabsorbed by green plants and algae during photosynthesis [4-7]. However, there are technical and economical challenges that have delayed the application of this technology to the commercial scale. An economically sustainable and competitive process will require versatility to accept different kinds of biomass feedstocks and the ability to produce low-oxygen, high energy content liquids, which should be fungible with conventional fuels [8].