Dry and chapped skin is a common problem both in healthy individuals and in patients with skin diseases. The problem can occur in response to an environment with low humidity and/or low temperature. Behavior may also contribute to the dryness, where exposure to solvents, cutting uids, surfactants, acids, and alkalis may produce dry skin. Moreover, dry skin might be connected to some inherited disorders relating to the structure and function of the epidermis, for example ichthyosis and atopic dermatitis (AD), and may be secondary to other diseases, for example, diabetes or renal failure.