Sp2-hybridized carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes feature unique electronic and vibronic characteristics.

Consisting of a single type of element only, they can also help in un-

derstanding how structure and dimensionality determine solid state

properties including electron and phonon dispersion. While Raman

spectroscopy is very well suited for studying these phenomena,

local structural variations, defects, and perturbations remain hidden

in conventional microscopy studies due to the resolution limit

imposed by diffraction. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS)

overcomes this limitation providing nanoscale spatial resolution

and improved detection sensitivity. In this chapter we illustrate the

main principles of TERS, possible experimental implementations,

and review several recent applications to carbon nanotubes and