SECTION IV - Wetlands
DOI link for SECTION IV - Wetlands
SECTION IV - Wetlands book
Mangrove wetlands are distributed in the intertidal region between the sea and the land in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world spanning mostly between 35°N and 35°S latitude (Giri et al., 2011b). Ÿey grow in harsh environmental
settings such as high salinity, high temperature, extreme tides, high sedimentation, and muddy anaerobic soils (Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001). Ÿe total area of mangroves in the year 2000 was 137,760 km2 spread across 118 countries and territories (Giri et al., 2011b). At least 35% of the area of mangrove forestswooded, tropical wetlands-has been deforested from 1980 to 2000 (Valiela et al., 2001). Much of what remains in these deforested areas is in degraded condition (Duke et al., 2007). Coastal habitats across the world are under heavy population and development pressures and are subjected to frequent storms and other natural disturbances.