SECTION XII - Urban Areas
DOI link for SECTION XII - Urban Areas
SECTION XII - Urban Areas book
AVNIR-2 Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2
DN Digital Number ETM+ Enhanced Ÿematic Mapper Plus GCPs Ground control points GIS Geographic information systems GSI Geospatial Information Authority of Japan LiDAR Light detection and ranging MODIS Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration PRISM Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for
Stereo Mapping SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission TM Ÿematic Mapper UTM Universal Transverse Mercator WGS 84 World Geodetic System of 1984
Urban areas occupy a relatively small fraction of the earth’s land area, but at present more than half of the global population lives in urban areas, and this proportion is expected to increase in the coming decades (United Nations, 2014). Urban areas contribute signi¤cantly to climate change as a result of the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation, transportation,
and industry. Already the intensive burning of carbon fuels in the world’s urban areas accounts for about 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions (Solecki et al., 2013). In addition, previous research suggests that a 10% increase in urban land cover in a country is associated with an increase of more than 11% in the country’s total CO2 emissions (Angel et al., 2011). Urban form and structure are key factors that determine urban energy use and emissions, and urbanization fundamentally changes the urban form and urban spatial structure, including the number of buildings, their geometry, pattern, distribution, and density (Frolking et al., 2013).