It is important to understand the water/energy/land nexus in order to design effective climate change response strategies. California is using such under-standing to craft integrated strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation of the root problem) and build resilience (adaptation) in the face of climate impacts. Climate change poses serious challenges for California’s $2.32 trillion economy and 38.8 million residents. Water systems are a critical impact area, as precipitation patterns shift, intensity of weather events increases, and snow processes change. Water is a large user of energy, so it is also a significant cause of emissions driving climate change. This chapter addresses the challenges and opportunities in water/energy/land system management, and it discusses prospects for developing climate change response strategies that would have multiple benefits.