Darkfield microscopy, which utilizes a special condenser to direct light toward an object at an angle rather

Diagnosis of the diseases associated with the arthropodborne pathogens discussed in this book is often challenging. These pathogens are generally difficult (if at all possible) to cultivate in vitro, are often present in very low numbers in peripheral blood and may evoke a variable antibody response. The clinical signs associated with infection with these pathogens are often vague and nonspecific. The individual organisms are dealt with in detail in later chapters. This chapter gives an overview of the potential range of diagnostic tests used for determining infection with these agents, although some may not be available for routine clinical diagnosis.