Foodborne infections constitute a signifi cant worldwide public health problem(Kuchenmüller et al. 2009). In the United States, foodborne illness affects 1 in 6 Americans annually, resulting in an estimated 48 million episodes of illness, 128,000 hospitalizations and 3000 deaths (Scallan et al. 2011a, Scallan et al. 2011b). Norovirus, nontyphoidal Salmonella species, Clostridium perfringens and Campylobacter account for the majority of these illnesses, with a growing number of illnesses attributed to lesser known emerging organisms (Scallan et al. 2011a, Scallan et al. 2011b). The disease results from ingesting food and food products that are contaminated with bacterial, viral, and parasitic microorganisms or chemicals at any point in the food production and distribution process. Transmission may occur from any foodstuff, with increasing recognition of fresh fruits and vegetables as the source of many disease outbreaks (Berger et al. 2010, Painter et al. 2013). Linking sporadic illness to a particular food is diffi cult since most organisms are transmitted by more than one food source. As a result, outbreaks may be the only way to implicate a food vehicle defi nitively (CDC 2013). Even so, about one third of the reported foodborne disease outbreaks in the US are of unknown etiology(CDC 2013). While largely preventable,

foodborne illnesses remain common and constitute a substantial economic burden; recent data estimates foodborne illness in the US costs more than $15.6 billion dollars annually (https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/ cost-estimates-of-foodborne-illnesses.aspx#.VDW27r4mUfy).