This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book presents information on a broad range of topics in trends in microbial biotechnology in a single source. It discusses the related topics of microbial biotechnology in sufficient depth. The book aims to promote teaching methodology and research in a way to transform and aid economy. It highlights basic and applied aspects in microbial biotechnology. The book provides a comprehensive view of the most information on the implications and applications of microbes in various fields. It also presents unbiased original research results on microbes by incorporating case studies wherever appropriate. The book also provides an overview of the relevant topics of pharma, food, and other industries which include: understanding sepsis and its biomarkers; fungal biotransformation of drugs: potential applications in the pharma industry; role of copper in modifying cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in yeast.