ABSTRACT

Department of Biology, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, P.M.B. 3244, Nigeria, E-mail: [email protected]

8.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 292 8.1.1 Importance of Postharvest Diseases ................................. 293 8.2 The Postharvest Pathogens........................................................... 294 8.2.2 How Pathogens Attack Plants? ......................................... 294 8.2.3 Postharvest Spoilage causing Pathogens .......................... 295 8.2.3.1 Yeast .................................................................. 298 8.2.3.2 Mold .................................................................. 299 8.2.3.3 Bacteria ............................................................. 301 8.3 Factors Affecting Food Spoilage and Shelf Life .......................... 302 8.3.1 Vegetables ......................................................................... 303 8.3.2 Fruits and Juices ............................................................... 303 8.4 Control of Postharvest Spoilage Pathogens ................................. 304 8.4.1 Management of Mycotoxins Contamination .................... 305 8.4.1.1 Preharvest Control ............................................. 305 8.4.1.2 Postharvest Control ........................................... 306 8.5 Conclusion ................................................................................... 307

Keywords .............................................................................................. 308 References ............................................................................................. 308

8.1 INTRODUCTION

Pathogenic micro-organisms account for substantial losses of grains, fruits, and vegetables at both pre-and postharvest stages of crop production. Narayanasamy (2006) emphasized that “the responsibilities of the plant pathologist do not end with the harvest of satisfactory yields of plant products and that harvesting marks the termination of one phase of plant protection and the beginning of another.” This clearly indicates that the second phase of plant protection-of seeds, fruits, vegetables, and other economic plant parts from the time of harvest until they reach the consumer-is equally important. Postharvest pathology, earlier termed “market pathology,” deals with the science of, and practices for the protection of harvested produce during harvesting, packaging, transporting, processing, storing and distribution (Doyle, 2007).