The history of human performance in the aerospace setting is well into its third century of research and innovation. Since the 1780s, researchers have been concerned about issues of aviation safety, including the ability to survive and perform complex tasks in extreme environments while controlling aircraft. Many advances in aerospace human factors are tied to military advances, which also include concerns about training, awareness of changing events and threats, and human capabilities in even more dangerous environmental conditions. The applications of human factors research in aerospace include emphasis on multiple aspects of the vehicle, the environment, the task, and the human. The impacts of human performance have been applied to both individual and team performance contexts. Research investigating human error in aviation is directly related to the complex interaction between vehicle, environment, and task factors. Aircraft and spacecraft must operate in a challenging physical environment, and still safely protect the health and functional capacity of human crew and passengers.