Human factors/ergonomics aspects of safety management are wide-ranging and it is now recognized that these are essential for effective risk control, as well as performance efficiencies and worker well-being. This chapter focuses on just three of this safety topic areas that would be of particular interest to the Gulf region: safety culture, managers' safety leadership, and worker behaviors relating to non-technical skills. It discusses these in the context of research in two sectors: health care and the oil and gas industry. The safety culture of an organization is the product of individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies and patterns of behavior that determine the commitment to, and the style and proficiency of, an organisation's health and safety management. The main dimensions of organizational safety culture typically include management commitment to safety, work practices, relative prioritization of safety, adherence to safety rules, risk management, and reporting of errors and incidents.