A large portion of the human population resides in earthen structures. Traditional and vernacular earthen structures are eco-friendly, green and sustainable. In order to overcome the inherent limitations of unstabilised earth based constructions and to meet the emerging demand for the low embodied carbon materials certain modern earth construction techniques have evolved. Earthen structures are eco-friendly, green and sustainable. There is a long history of earth construction, with an estimated 30-50% of the world's population living in earthen dwellings. Several earth construction techniques have evolved through ages including: adobe; cob; rammed earth; and, wattle and daub represent some of the common traditional earth construction techniques. The chapter reviews the innovations that are enabling the development of earth construction. It considers information on scientific, technological and developments for a variety of different earth construction techniques across different disciplines including structural performance and indoor environmental regulations.