Sophorolipids are microbial glycolipids that are derived from certain benign yeast species in yields reportedly as high as 400 g/L. They are typically made from renewable materials and their amphiphilic chemical makeup imparts surfactancy and induces accumulation at interfaces such as air and water or oil and water which acts to vary the properties at those boundaries. This ability imparts a natural detergency to the molecule which can be exploited in dishwashing, fabric and other detergents. However, detergency is not the only property of these molecules that has drawn interest. Sophorolipids have been demonstrated to exhibit antimicrobial properties against certain bacterial strains (Gram+ strains are more susceptible than Gram- strains) that can be of interest in food protection, oral hygiene and skin infections. This chapter is devoted to a discussion of the chemical diversity associated with sophorolipids, the biochemical pathways associated with sophorolipid biosynthesis, specifically within Starmerella bombicola (the most studied producing strain), the known chemical modifications applied to sophorolipids for property enhancement and potential environmental and industrial applications for these unique molecules.