This chapter focuses on the future prospects for research and exploitation of microbial biosurfactants and deals with some of the key areas that will need to be addressed. First, the production and cost of the final product is identified as a key driver for future commercial exploitation, where the products will be in direct competition with existing chemical surfactants derived from non-renewable resources. Although the surfactant activity of these compounds has been a primary focus of attention, it is now becoming clear that they have important bioactivities, such as antimicrobial and anticancer properties, which will enhance their value in consumer products. The identification of new producer organisms and the genetic manipulation of existing known producers are also identified as important areas for continuing research. Finally, the impact and application of microbial biosurfactants in the environment is discussed.