African traditional medicine is the oldest, and perhaps the most diverse of all the world's indigenous medical systems. Several types of African traditional medicine are practiced in the region, although not all of them are recognized by communities and governments. African traditional medicine is characteristically holistic with the body and spirit considered as an integral unit, and disease, good health, success or failure are believed to be the products of the actions of individuals and ancestral spirits. The history of traditional medicine in Africa dates back to about 3200 bc, when King Menes became the first Pharaoh of ancient Egypt. Contrary to the widespread belief that African traditional medicine is mystic, superstitious, and demonic rather than scientific, some evidence suggests that the practitioners were probably aware of the natural causes of illness. The advent of European colonial rule on the African continent in the nineteenth century marked a significant turning point in the history of African traditional medicine.