This chapter explores how African traditional medicine can contribute its legitimate share to the global therapeutic arsenal using appropriate science and technology tools. It examines some research paradigms with implications to development and associated policies. The chapter discusses some relevant innovative strategies for research and development of African traditional medicines. There is no longer any doubt regarding the value of African traditional remedies. Ethnomedical uses claimed for a traditional preparation correlate with the biological action of the isolated drugs. For economic reasons and attachment to cultural values, most affected populations in sub-Saharan Africa turn toward traditional medicine for their primary health care. 217 different species have been cited for their use as antimalarials in folk medicine in Cameroon. Interactions between phytochemical components often modify the pharmacological effects of phytomedicines. The concept of "reverse pharmacology" was coined in India to develop pharmaceuticals from Ayurvedic medicines, and was championed by the Chinese in the 1950s.