This chapter looks briefly at Moringa stenopetala, which is indigenous to Ethiopia and Kenya, and Moringa oleifera vis-a-vis economic significance. It describes the uses of Moringa oleifera in Africa using a few country cases. The chapter reviews the various uses and pharmacological effects responsible for them. It presents some of the bioactive components of Moringa oleifera. Moringa stenopetala is known in Ethiopia as Shferaw, Aleko, Aluko, Halaco, Halako, Kallanki, Telahu, Haleko, Shelchada, Wuame, and Mawe. Moringa stenopetala is indigenous to the southern parts of Ethiopia and Kenya. According to H. G. Endeshaw, Moringa stenopetala is a favorite and main component of the daily meal of the Konso, Gamo, and Gofa people in southern Ethiopia. In 2010, N. Amsalu used the crude aqueous leaf extracts of Moringa stenopetala and reported the presence of alkaloids, saponins, polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, tannins, phytosterols, and cardiac glycosides, and the presence of all the secondary metabolites except saponins in 70% alcohol fractions.