Promotion of green building design and construction by mandatory policies, energy standards and codes, and related incentives has gained momentum in many countries. Actions initiated by the government play a prominent role in popularizing green building technologies. Affordable housing, which is normally supplied by the government, could be a desirable sample for showcasing how the energy target can be achieved through the application of various green design strategies. This chapter introduces and analyzes three main approaches to deliver energy efficient affordable housing, namely passive design strategies, energy efficient building service systems, and renewable energy solutions. With respect to the cost-effectiveness of the strategies for the affordable housing, passive design is addressed as the main focus of this chapter, wherein the effects of each strategy in different urban and climate contexts are compared and demonstrated. Related assessment factors are introduced to facilitate the performance evaluation. For building service systems, the major energy consumers in residential buildings are addressed, including air conditioning system, water heating system, and lighting system. In terms of alternative renewable energy resources, PV, wind energy, and biomass energy are considered to be the most feasible to be implemented in affordable housing. The economic profitability and social benefits of these advanced systems are also discussed. It is indicated that the effects of these strategies vary with the urban environment and climate backgrounds. An integrated energy performance evaluation, environmental and economic life-cycle assessment should be conducted at the design phase to determine the optimal design. This chapter would be helpful for the professionals that make the design decisions. Energy efficient affordable housing could benefit the low-income families with a more thermally comfort, economical, and healthier living environment in the long term.