As human populations continue to expand and migrate to cities, shortages of appropriate affordable dwellings remain a central challenge. After reviewing the backdrop, conundrums and approaches, the chapter outlines a Sustainable Management for Affordable Housing (‘SMAH’) framework and investigates developing and developed country contexts. Definitions of affordable housing vary but it must be both cheap and meet minimum standards for human dignity and flourishing. Philosophically, the extent of and mechanism for government intervention to influence markets is contested but, for housing supply, it spans political economy, planning policy and collaborative local schemes, supported by a comprehensive Land Administrative System. However, in emerging cities housing and food security are intricately linked. In developed nations, with relatively sophisticated logistics, contested politics and lack of investment constrain affordable housing delivery. Nowadays, technology is central but no system can ever resolve the inherent tensions between informed excellence, commercial gain and environmental protection. Rather than a final blueprint, the SMAH sparks continuous dialogue, multi-criteria reflection and policy learning.