Soil is one of world’s most important non-renewable resources essential to all life forms on Earth. The soils range from stony and shallow to deeply weathered soils that are capable of recycling and supporting large amounts of biomass. Some of the natural causes of soil degradation are factors related to climate, topography, soil, and vegetation. Although both biophysical and human-induced processes contribute to soil erosion and soil degradation, the occurrence of widespread soil degradation in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is attributed to anthropogenic factors, the root cause being the dominant low-input agricultural systems on land with moderate to poor potential. Deforestation is one of the leading causes of soil erosion and a significant cause of degradation and desertification in SSA. Overgrazing decreases protective cover and leaves a soil vulnerable to water and wind erosion. Important physical properties linked to soil quality, fertility and productivity include soil texture, structure, porosity, bulk density, soil water, and air and soil temperature.