Agriculture is the mainstay of Tanzania's economy. Tanzanian soil types vary drastically throughout the country and each region gets varied amounts of rainfall. Tanzania recognizes that managing its natural resources sustainably needs to be an integral part of its agenda for agricultural productivity. Conservation Agriculture (CA) has great potential in Africa, particularly in Tanzania, because it can control erosion, produce stable yields and reduce labor needs. The CA for sustainable agriculture and rural development project conducted in the northern part of Tanzania, aimed at improving food security and rural livelihoods for small- and medium-scale farmers through the use of proper CA practices. In the late 1990s, northern Tanzania’s Arusha region was encountering serious threats to farming and food security. Agroforestry is an approach that has been commonly used in Tanzania to reduce land degradation. The incorporation of the crop residues can also lead to an immobilization of nitrogen when the stover is decomposing.