This chapter discusses the status of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the dryland agricultural soils of Africa, and looks at some of the underlying issues, which remain relevant despite the abundant literature. The stock of SOC pools is mainly present in the top layer of the soil and declines rapidly with depth. Crop residues are the main source of SOC and improve the chemical, physical and biological properties of the soil. Fallow plays multiple roles in the sequestration of soil C, especially where fallow is associated with good residue management. The socioeconomic context is a critical determinant of C sequestration that needs to be taken into account beyond the scientific evidence of the benefits of agroforestry in carbon sequestration. The use of mixed- or intercropping with various field or tree crops has been reported to promote C sequestration in the soil compared to sole cropping.