Soil is a basic natural resource that supports all forms of life on Earth, productive landscapes and societal development. Although soil degradation is a natural process, it is accelerated by a complexity of interacting biophysical and socioeconomic factors; for example, population growth and climate change. The East African landscape is a rich mosaic of resources, including ecoregions, soils, climates, water, flora and fauna. Maintaining the health of these soil resources underpins ecological stability and sustainability, food security, viable rural livelihoods and agricultural resilience under a changing climate in the region. Climate change is, undoubtedly, the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st century and its impacts will increase the vulnerability of agricultural systems in East Africa. Climate change will also affect soil erosion through changes in the rates of decomposition and evapotranspiration, soil erodibility, land-use changes and net primary production. Rehabilitation of degraded rangelands through exclosures can be effective in restoring vegetation, reducing soil erosion hazard and improving soil fertility.