The power of the petroleum industry in the global market creates a situation in which diverse types of hydrocarbons are distributed in massive quantities as hydrocarbon sludge waste. Petroleum hydrocarbons are used as the chief source of power; therefore, they constitute a significant worldwide environmental pollutant. Oily sludge waste is a viscous combination of sediments, oil, water, and elevated hydrocarbon concentration encountered throughout crude oil decontamination sites, the clean-up of oil storage vessels, and processing plant wastewater management. Numerous parts of crude petroleum oils are recalcitrant and extremely toxic because of their role in carcinogenic, blood toxic, and teratogenic mechanisms. These parts include benzene, toluene, xylenes, and ethyl benzene. Petroleum hydrocarbons are energy-loaded materials degraded by the organisms present in the environment. Microbial bioremediation is used extensively for the management of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution from different segments in the petroleum industry.