A large part of untreated municipal solid waste ultimately makes its way to the landfill. The landfill, which is often considered a wasteland, is in fact a land full of resources. After undergoing a stabilization phase, the landfill a treasure trove of various energy sources, for example, landfill gases (LFGs) and fine soil-like materials. The fine soil-like material of an age-old landfill can also be a valuable resource. It can be applied as a cover material for other landfills, and it can also be used as soil amendment/soil conditioner. Chapter 3 summarizes the details about the types of landfill, land-mining options, and modern energy recovery from renewable landfills.