Characterizing the nature of innovation in the mining industry sector is important because most mining innovation takes the form of process innovation and on-site problem solving, which is not well captured by traditional innovation measures such as research and development (R&D) expenditure and patents. This chapter discusses how digital technology within the innovation process might allow mining companies to innovate in areas that will become critical in the future such as better use of water and managing the mine through the entire lifecycle from planning to decommissioning. It illustrates key points with quotes from interviews that were conducted between 2014 and 2016 with mining managers and executives from Australia, North America, Africa, and South America as part of exploratory research into innovation and productivity in the mining industry. An outcome of digitization is the growing competition for control of architectural knowledge within the mining innovation ecosystem.