This question and answer chapter analyzes technical, social, and environmental concerns associated with deep seabed mining (DSM), an accelerating mining industry interested in extracting minerals between 1000 and 5000 m underwater. This work overviews some of the technological advances and adaptations that have made DSM more feasible since the 1970s, environmental concerns surrounding disturbed benthic ecologies, sediment plumes, noise, and light, and legal challenges for DSM projects operating in the area. The chapter concludes by identifying areas of further innovation and study, including interpretation of the common heritage of mankind, continued improvements to mining equipment, and long-term studies on the environmental impact of DSM, and further inquiry into “social license” and the social impact of DSM projects.