The main motivations for off-Earth mining are the abundance of mineral resources that are inevitably necessary for technologically obsessed civilization and passion of travelling and discovering new places which we can colonize. The materials mined included water for energy, semi-conductors to build solar cells, and iron ore and nickel for constructing the infrastructure. This chapter reviews of past and current research status of off-Earth mining and briefly comments on some of the main challenges confronting the sector. The developed mining model emphasizes machineries and mining approaches associated with in situ resource extraction, processing, storage, handling, and delivery. Terrestrial mining operations have specific operational risks and uncertainties, mainly due to geology and economics. Off-Earth mining operations will have the similar risks and uncertainties with even more extreme environmental conditions. Cutting-edge mining engineering and interplanetary geology education should be adopted and interwoven toward this end accordingly, with multidisciplinary skills and degrees being essential.