The Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI) and the Lakshadweep groups of islands (LDI) are the unique tropical ecosystems of India. Both the groups 146of islands constitute one of the 22 agro-biodiversity hotspots of the country, harboring variety of flora of horticultural importance. The geographical separation of these islands from the continental India has proved to be advantageous as well as disadvantageous at occasions. Being situated in the oceans, they are vulnerable to a number of climatic vagaries such as Tsu-nami, cyclones, and storms. In such fragile ecosystems, it is important to strike a balance between the development and ecological subsistence for achieving long-term sustainability of the horticulture production system. In this article, we analyze the historical and present status of the horticulture in these islands, various constraints encountered during the production, strategies to overcome them by developing locally suitable technologies, interventions made, gaps and issues to be addressed, and the role of various research and developmental agencies in the islands.