Kendu (Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb.), an underexploited fruit species in the family of Ebenaceae, is grown as natural wild in the forests and marginal lands of West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Andhra Pradesh. In West Bengal, it is commonly found in plateau districts of Paschim Midnapur, Bankura, and Purulia. Being highly economical species for the local inhabitants and tribals, it is naturally being protected by them. All the plant parts like fruits, seeds, leaves, and bark can be used for different commercial purposes. Fruits are good source of carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorus, and carotene and can prevent the malnutrition of tribals. Dried powdered fruit is used as carminative and dried flowers are reported to be useful in urinary, skin and blood diseases. Seeds are prescribed for curing mental disorders, palpitation of heart, and nervous breakdown. Leaves are used as a raw material for the “Bidi” industry, and West Bengal Tribal Development Co-operative Corporation Limited (WBTDCC) has given top priority in this regard. Due to its immense importance, this crop should be given priority so that it can provide the nutritional security and uplift the socio-economic condition of the poor tribal peoples. Hence, a review of this crop on different aspects of nutritional, medicinal, etc., has been done with a view to exploit this underexploited fruit tree to the maximum extent.