Cognitive-behavioral therapy and other psychological interventions provide a viable alternative to traditional Western biomedical pain treatments. Growing bodies of research supports their efficacy for helping patients better manage chronic pain. The National Institute of Health Office of Alternative Medicine and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine have grouped Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies into four domains: biologically based medicine, energy medicine, manipulative and body-based medicine, and mind–body medicine. Tan and colleagues have examined the efficacy of various CAM therapies for chronic pain. Biofeedback is the process of providing real-time information from psycho physiological recordings about the levels at which physiological systems are functioning. Biofeedback is also often combined with psychotherapy as a part of behavioral intervention, or is used as one modality in a multidisciplinary treatment approach. Individual biofeedback therapy sessions must be efficient and goal-directed in order to maximize treatment time.