This chapter examines the relationship between transport, energy and pollution. The chapter begins with a critique of a transport policy based upon the idea of free and, if possible, the unimpeded movement of the motor car; investment priority being given to the road-building programme, which remains the desired option of the motoring public in this and most other developed nations. It then outlines the features of a sustainable transport system giving priority to walking, cycling and public transport. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the regional and local political and administrative structures necessary for achieving a sustainable transport system, emphasizing the need for public participation in the design, development and management of the system. This chapter leads directly into Chapter 4, the regional context for sustainable development.