In many influential circles in Europe, it is widely held that its over 15 million Muslims pose a serious cultural and political threat. Sometimes this view is explicitly stated; more often it is implied or simply assumed. 1 On other occasions it takes the form of an attack on multiculturalism for which Muslims are largely held responsible and which is a coded word for them. 2 It cuts across political and ideological divides and is shared alike, albeit in different degrees, by conservatives, fascists, liberals, socialists and communists. In this chapter I critically examine the basis of this view, paying particular attention to liberals and asking why the champions of minority rights, cultural diversity and civic as opposed to ethnic nationalism are drawn towards it.