One of the consequences of 9/11 in Belgium is without any doubt that the issue of multiculturalism and the position of Islam within Belgian society have been put centre stage in political and public debate. Any observer who undertakes a quick scan of the focus of contemporary Belgian media attention would have to conclude that the issue of cultural diversity – and in particular the position of immigrant Muslim minority groups – is currently seen to be at the core of public life. The preoccupation of managing ethnic, cultural and religious diversity in the public space did not suddenly appear with the tragic events in New York and Washington. Indeed, it has been a recurring issue, albeit fragmented, for debate in Belgium ever since the mid-1970s (Jacobs and Swyngedouw, 2002).